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Old 12-19-2015, 12:04 PM   #401
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"10 Incredible Things We Learned About Our Health in 2015"
https://www.facebook.com/notes/max-l...92814777691610
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Old 05-12-2016, 10:42 AM   #402
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Since potatoes got discussed in another thread...

It looks like the "carb-insulin-obesity" hypothesis has been soundly falsified:
That is, the simple hypothesis that carbs drive insulin production drives fat storage has been falsified, by a study that was organized by "Mr. Insulin" himself, Gary Taubes.
The hypothesis of the "metabolic advantage" (metabolism is raised in a person doing a ketogenic diet), has been been falsified.
However it did show that the first 5 days of a ketogenic diet caused rapid fat loss, but the rate of loss slowed down over time. So maybe the bodybuilders who do a "cyclic ketogenic diet" have it right all along.

What was not tested, was the hypothesis that appetite is suppressed when a person goes very low carb, making it easier to eat less and go into calorie deficit. This hypothesis has been supported by other studies.




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Old 05-12-2016, 10:18 PM   #403
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Also in recent news, if your study shows that vegetable oil (actually high-linoleic-acid industrial processed seed oils) is bad and saturated fat isn't, bury it:
Is Vegetable Oil Really Better for Your Heart? - The Atlantic
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Old 06-12-2016, 07:08 PM   #404
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Interesting hypothesis: Iron and B vitamin fortification of refined flour is a major contributor to obesity:
How Food Enrichment Promotes Obesity ("The Theory of Everything" Wider and Deeper)
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Old 10-11-2016, 01:20 PM   #405
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Posting this here not as a response to Jason, but simply because it was today's XKCD and reminded me of this thread:


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Old 10-11-2016, 01:38 PM   #406
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Hovertext:

Quote:
I have this weird thing where if I don't drink enough water, I start feeling bad and then die of dehydration.
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Old 10-28-2016, 10:10 AM   #407
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This one's for Jason. Turns out it's not your guy microbiome, it's your DNA. (Or, at least, that's the trend we're trying to start at the moment.)


HABIT WILL OFFER PERSONALIZED DNA-BASED DIETS DELIVERED TO YOUR DOOR

Habit will be launching its healthy meal service in January of 2017 and all their recipes will contain one special ingredient: your genetics.

Charles Costa Oct 27, 2016

Dieting is one of the hottest industries in the world, filled with tens of thousands of products promising to help users live longer, longer lives and lose significant amounts of weight. The common goal, when it comes to most people’s diets, is pretty simple: they’re looking to become “healthier.” How they go about reaching their goals, however, varies wildly in both style and complexity. For most, dieting is significant challenge, made even more challenging by the one thing we’re stuck with: our genetics.

To address this often-overlooked layer of complexity, there is a developing field of science known as, nutrigenomics. Eating Well has a good in-depth discussion on the topic, but the science boils down to an appreciation and application of the fact that genetics have a significant impact on metabolism, appetite, and other characteristics critical to the necessary inputs and eventual outputs of dieting.

A new startup is placing this science at the heart of its service: Habit. Their plan is to provide personalized diets to people using their DNA to drive the menus. Their offering also tries to boil down the science to bits and bites, allowing users to discover their unique scientific characteristics in a language they speak—like ideal ratios of carbs, fats, and proteins, and general nutritional statuses via biomarkers such as Vitamin A, carotenoids, and omega-3 fatty acids.

To use the service, users first collect their own DNA sample (don’t worry, there are instructions and timers and stuff). The sample is sent over to a partner company that processes the specimen in a CLIA and CAP certified lab. Applying proprietary algorithms, Habit’s Nutrition Intelligence Engine identifies the user diet type and recommends foods and nutrients based on the profile. From there a team of chefs creates fresh meals and delivers them to each doorstep.

If they so choose, users can download and use Habit’s companion mobile app to share details of their meals, experience and progress. Fact: People on health kicks love to share (their thoughts, not their food).

Habit’s program is based on a few key elements:
  • DNA: Genotype determines whether genes are turned on or off. When they’re expressed, the genetic information is used to make proteins, including enzymes and polypeptide hormones which impact metabolism.
  • Phenotype: The observable expression of user genes, it describes how internal (physical) and external influences (food) affect the body’s biology. Weight, activity levels, age, and core measurement are just a few essential metrics.
  • Phenotype Flexibility: This is an analysis used to understand how the body responds to food. Habit replaces a user meal with the shake, and then measures several nutrition biomarkers after consumption. This provides more granular insight into how the body reacts to fats, carbs, and protein.
  • Habits and Goals: Habit not only works with your DNA but with your personal goals, employing registered dietitians and offering “coaching” services to achieve a generally healthy lifestyle.
  • Nutrition Intelligence Engine: Proprietary algorithms and decision trees are applied based on nutrition biomarkers, body basics, genetic variations in the user DNA, activity level, health goals, and food preferences. This is the brain that creates the personalized diets for each end user.
There’s a lot going on there, but at the end of the day, the company promises a pretty straight forward final product: a delicious meal.

Habit was founded by Neil Grimmer (who also founded Plum Organics back in 2005) and has an advisory board that includes a few members of the Institute of Systems Biology and the Vice President of Global Nutrition and Health at Campbell Soup Company. Habit will be launching their Beta program in select locations in January 2017. You can sign up for the waitlist on their website.

https://www.snapmunk.com/personalized-dna-diets-habit/
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Old 10-28-2016, 10:50 AM   #408
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"Phenotype"... is epigenetics. The gut biome affects epigenetics.

Here's one example:

Pubmed:

Gut Bacteria May Override Genetic Protections against Diabetes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232188/
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Old 02-27-2017, 09:29 PM   #409
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I'll have the "chicken," please.

What's in your chicken sandwich? DNA test shows Subway sandwiches could contain just 50% chicken

Marketplace had chicken from 5 major fast food restaurants tested

By Pete Evans and Eric Szeto, CBC News Posted: Feb 24, 2017 8:00 PM ET Last Updated: Feb 24, 2017 8:00 PM ET




Subway's oven-roasted chicken sandwich patty contained about 50 per cent chicken DNA, according to Marketplace's tests.

If you're one of many Canadians who opt for chicken sandwiches at your favourite fast food restaurant, you may find the results of a CBC Marketplace investigation into what's in the meat a little hard to swallow.

A DNA analysis of the poultry in several popular grilled chicken sandwiches and wraps found at least one fast food restaurant isn't serving up nearly as much of the key ingredient as people may think.

In the case of two popular Subway sandwiches, the chicken was found to contain only about half chicken DNA.

Will Mahood, a loyal customer who considered Subway chicken sandwiches a lunchtime staple, was alarmed by the findings. To Mahood, messages from fast food companies can make it sound like "you're taking it straight from a farm and it's just a fresh piece of meat."

DNA researcher Matt Harnden at Trent University's Wildlife Forensic DNA Laboratory tested the poultry in six popular chicken sandwiches.

An unadulterated piece of chicken from the store should come in at 100 per cent chicken DNA. Seasoning, marinating or processing meat would bring that number down, so fast food samples seasoned for taste wouldn't be expected to hit that 100 per cent target.

The Peterborough, Ont.-based team tested the meat in:
  • McDonald's Country Chicken - Grilled
  • Wendy's Grilled Chicken Sandwich
  • A&W Chicken Grill Deluxe
  • Tim Hortons Chipotle Chicken Grilled Wrap
  • Subway Oven Roasted Chicken Sandwich
  • Subway Sweet Onion Chicken Teriyaki (chicken strips)
NOTE: The tests were on the meat samples alone, without sauces or condiments.
In the first round of tests, the lab tested two samples of five of the meat products, and one sample of the Subway strips. From each of those samples, the researchers isolated three smaller samples and tested each of those.

They were all DNA tested and the score was then averaged for each sandwich. Most of the scores were "very close" to 100 per cent chicken DNA, Harnden says.
  • A&W Chicken Grill Deluxe averaged 89.4 per cent chicken DNA
  • McDonald's Country Chicken - Grilled averaged 84.9 per cent chicken DNA
  • Tim Hortons Chipotle Chicken Grilled Wrap averaged 86.5 per cent chicken DNA
  • Wendy's Grilled Chicken Sandwich averaged 88.5 per cent chicken DNA

Subway's results were such an outlier that the team decided to test them again, biopsying five new oven roasted chicken pieces, and five new orders of chicken strips.

Those results were averaged: the oven roasted chicken scored 53.6 per cent chicken DNA, and the chicken strips were found to have just 42.8 per cent chicken DNA. The majority of the remaining DNA? Soy.

"That's misrepresentation," Irena Valenta, a Toronto resident who participated in a Marketplace taste test, said after seeing the test results.

Subway said in a statement that it disagrees with the test results.

"Our recipe calls for one per cent or less of soy protein in our chicken products."

"We will look into this again with our supplier to ensure that the chicken is meeting the high standard we set for all of our menu items and ingredients."

What else is in there?

On the whole, Marketplace's testing revealed that once the ingredients are factored in, the fast food chicken had about a quarter less protein than you would get in its home-cooked equivalent. And overall, the sodium levels were between seven and 10 times what they would be in a piece of unadulterated chicken.


Grilled chicken products are often marketed as the healthy alternative, but consumers may not always know what they are biting into.

Ben Bohrer, a food scientist at the University of Guelph, doesn't know exactly how the chicken products Marketplace tested are made, but he's very familiar with what the fast food industry calls "restructured products".

Restructured products are essentially smaller pieces of meat or ground meat, bound together with other ingredients to make them last longer, taste better and, as Bohrer puts it, "add value" — restaurant speak for cheaper.

The sandwiches tested contain a combined total of about 50 ingredients in the chicken alone, each with an average of 16 ingredients. The ingredients run the gamut from things you would find in your home such as honey and onion powder to industrial ingredients — all of which, Bohrer insists, are safe and government approved for human consumption.

McDonald's, A&W and Wendy's wouldn't break down exactly what ingredients are used in what proportions, citing proprietary information. Tim Hortons had no comment and directed Marketplace to their website.

Healthy alternative?

Nutritionist and registered dietitian Christy Brissette notes that most products in that alphabet soup ingredient list are simply variants on salt or sugar, the latter of which can elevate the carbohydrate level of a chicken breast to well above where it should be: zero per cent.

Before they saw the test results, both Valenta and Mahood said they chose chicken because they thought they were making a healthier choice — "the chicken is supposed to be the healthier type of meat," as Valenta put it.

But Brissette says it's important for consumers to not allow themselves to buy into the "halo" of health around such products.

"People think they're doing themselves a favour and making themselves a healthy choice," she says. "But from a sodium perspective you might as well eat a big portion of poutine."

What's in your chicken sandwich? DNA test shows Subway sandwiches could contain just 50% chicken - Business - CBC News

Never been a fan of Subway. There are just so many other sandwiches at the same price point which are better in every conceivable way.
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Old 02-28-2017, 09:52 AM   #410
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Science.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Trump on Fast Food
“I’m a very clean person. I like cleanliness. I think you’re better off going there than someplace you have no idea where the food is coming from. It’s a certain standard,” Trump explained.
secret sauce:
Donald Trump claims people are 'better off' eating at McDonalds and Burger King | The Independent
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Old 02-28-2017, 09:55 AM   #411
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"Better Off" can be defined in a lot of different ways. I don't think they are defining it as healthier. I can say my wallet it better off after eating at McDonalds then Black Bean Company.
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Old 04-08-2017, 06:02 PM   #412
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When Gluten Is The Villain, Could A Common Virus Be The Trigger?

April 8, 2017 Allison Aubrey



For people with celiac disease gluten-free food is a must. A new study suggests that a common virus may trigger the onset of the disease.

A new study raises a novel idea about what might trigger celiac disease, a condition that makes patients unable to tolerate foods containing gluten.

The study suggests that a common virus may be to blame.

For people with celiac disease, gluten can wreak havoc on their digestive systems. Their immune systems mistake gluten as a dangerous substance.

Scientists have known for a while that genetics predisposes some people to celiac. About 30 percent of Americans carry the genes that make them more susceptible to the disease. And yet, only about one percent of Americans have celiac.

Researchers wondered why not everyone with the risk genes gets the disease.

The answer is likely complicated, but one theory has emerged. Perhaps a "viral infection can serve as a trigger to celiac," explains Dr. Terence Dermody, who chairs the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Pittsburgh, and is an author of the new study published in Science.

He and a team of collaborators, led by Bana Jabri of the University of Chicago, decided to test this in experimental mice. They had been studying reovirus – a common virus that infects most Americans beginning in childhood, yet isn't considered dangerous. The researchers genetically engineered the mice to be more susceptible to celiac disease. Then they exposed mice to reovirus. At the same time they also fed gluten to the mice.

It turns out their hunch had been right. The mice developed "an immunological response against gluten that mimics the features of humans with celiac disease," Dermody says. The symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea and other signs of gastrointestinal distress.

"It's all about the timing," Dermody says. The idea is that when the virus and gluten are introduced at the same time, the immune system mistakes the gluten-containing food as dangerous.


Transmission electron micrograph of a cell infected with reovirus (red). The virus is very common and not considered dangerous. Scientists now think it may have a role to play in triggering celiac disease.

But could this be true in humans too?

The second phase of the new study suggests an answer. Dermody and his collaborators analyzed the antibody levels to various viruses in a group of people. They found people who have celiac disease have two- to five-fold higher levels of reovirus-specific antibodies.

"It's a clue that people who have celiac may have been exposed to reovirus before the development of their disease," Dermody says. But, he stresses that "it's just a clue."

It will take a long time to figure out if there's a causal link between reovirus infections and the onset of celiac disease. Dermody envisions a study involving thousands of children who would be followed for several years. For now, he and his collaborators have some grant funds from the National Institutes of Health to continue their research.

The upside of understanding this possible connection is significant, explains Dr. Bana Jabri, of the University of Chicago, who is a co-author of the new study.

If it's true that the virus can trigger celiac disease, then young children who carry the risk genes for celiac could be vaccinated against Reovirus. "It may be useful to start thinking about vaccinating people who are at a high risk of celiac disease against [these] types of viruses," she says.

Links between viral infection and the development of auto-immune disorders such as celiac disease have been proposed before, "but this is the first tractable experimental model to tackle this question," says Julie Pfeiffer, an Associate Professor of Microbiology at University of Texas Southwestern, who has followed the research, but is not involved in the new study. Given the interest and the findings, "more studies in humans are warranted," she says.

As awareness of celiac disease has grown, so too has the number of people experimenting with gluten-free diets due to concerns about gluten sensitivities. This is evident from the growth in gluten-free food sales and most recently, the introduction of gluten-free dining halls on two college campuses.

For People With Celiac Disease, A Common Virus May Be The Trigger : The Salt : NPR
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