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Old 08-31-2015, 01:26 AM   #23181
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Friend works in the electric vehicle industry. They get all their important **** manufactured in China so they can use leaded solder. Its not as good without lead.
<br />Thanks for the link Joe, going to try that out.
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Old 08-31-2015, 03:47 AM   #23182
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Friend works in the electric vehicle industry. They get all their important **** manufactured in China so they can use leaded solder. Its not as good without lead..
Hm. My impression is that it's not that you can't manufacture it with lead, you just can't sell it in Europe if you do (or you pay some hefty fees or something).

We had fun a few years ago where the manufacturer for some of the ASICs we used in our products forgot to check the "low alpha solder" option with their chip fab. It turns out that lead ore is mixed with uranium, and the decay chain from that uranium includes some radioactive isotopes of lead. So when you refine it you get out all the uranium, polonium, etc, but you're still left with the radioactive lead atoms because chemically they're the same as the stable ones. When those lead atoms decay they emit alpha particles, and if that lead happens to be right next to a transistor (like when it's holding the die down to the chip package) they can flip bits. As you might imagine, that does bad things to a router.

So what you're *supposed* to use for this purpose is solder made with lead that was refined at least a hundred years ago, because the radioactive lead isotopes will have all (well, almost all) decayed into stable atoms by now. This means that chip companies do things like buying the roof off an old church, or salvaging 1800s-era shipwrecks to strip the lead out of them...

--Ian
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Old 08-31-2015, 06:40 AM   #23183
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Helluva way to be woken up Monday morning. Son discovered a bat in his room. Bat in the house almost always means bats in the attic. Lovely.
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Old 08-31-2015, 08:07 AM   #23184
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Helluva way to be woken up Monday morning. Son discovered a bat in his room. Bat in the house almost always means bats in the attic. Lovely.
Unless it came down the chimney. Had this happen a couple of times over the years.
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Old 08-31-2015, 08:20 AM   #23185
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Friend works in the electric vehicle industry. They get all their important **** manufactured in China so they can use leaded solder. Its not as good without lead.
Like Ian said, it doesn't matter where the stuff is made, only where it's sold. You could outsource PCB fab to a company on the moon, and it'd still be illegal to sell the finished product in Europe.

That said, there are a number of exemptions granted in narrowly-defined situations. Automakers got a free pass because they build systems critical to life safety which operate in extreme environmental conditions. So do manufactures of servers, routers, storage arrays, and anything else considered to be network infrastructure.
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Old 08-31-2015, 12:47 PM   #23186
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Helluva way to be woken up Monday morning. Son discovered a bat in his room. Bat in the house almost always means bats in the attic. Lovely.
How old is your son? Checked for bites? Rabies from bats is rare, but not unheard of...

--Ian
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Old 08-31-2015, 01:12 PM   #23187
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Yes, he was checked, even though he protested that he would have known. Rolled his eyes the whole time, too.

Cats were going crazy, which is what woke my wife up to discover the flying rat.
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Old 08-31-2015, 02:22 PM   #23188
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It is true that life expectancy in the Middle Ages and earlier was low; however, one should not infer that people usually died around the age of 30.] In fact, earlier low life expectancies were very strongly influenced by high infant mortality, and the life expectancy of people who lived to adulthood was much higher. A 21-year-old man in medieval England, for example, could by one estimate expect to live to the age of 64.
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Old 08-31-2015, 02:24 PM   #23189
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^^

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Originally Posted by Joe Perez View Post
It is true that life expectancy in the Middle Ages and earlier was low; however, one should not infer that people usually died around the age of 30.] In fact, earlier low life expectancies were very strongly influenced by high infant mortality, and the life expectancy of people who lived to adulthood was much higher. A 21-year-old man in medieval England, for example, could by one estimate expect to live to the age of 64.
lol ninja edit
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Old 08-31-2015, 09:51 PM   #23190
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When you get both a smoke alarm and a low-airflow alarm from your transmitter at the top of the Empire State Building within 30 seconds of each other, this is cause for concern.

Separately, and in the absence of correlating alarms, either one can be plausibly dismissed as a false reading, at least until someone arrives at the site to make a visual inspection. Together, the two are too closely related to comfortably dismiss.
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Old 08-31-2015, 09:54 PM   #23191
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What credentials does one must have to hold the job of checking on the transmitter at 2am for false readings?
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Old 08-31-2015, 10:26 PM   #23192
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Joe Perez View Post
When you get both a smoke alarm and a low-airflow alarm from your transmitter at the top of the Empire State Building within 30 seconds of each other, this is cause for concern.

Separately, and in the absence of correlating alarms, either one can be plausibly dismissed as a false reading, at least until someone arrives at the site to make a visual inspection. Together, the two are too closely related to comfortably dismiss.
Chitauri attack?

--Ian
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Old 08-31-2015, 11:34 PM   #23193
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Originally Posted by triple88a View Post
put an automatic engagement of the rockets so they are tied to the wheels and be done with it.
You've obviously never worked with or for a defense contractor before. (And now I'm learning Aerospace as well)
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Old 08-31-2015, 11:46 PM   #23194
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Originally Posted by Erat View Post
What credentials does one must have to hold the job of checking on the transmitter at 2am for false readings?
A pulse and a WPIX email account.

All of our sites send out automatic mass emails to the whole engineering department whenever anything unusual happens.



Quote:
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Chitauri attack?
Turned out to be an interesting coincidence.

The smoke alarm was false. But a clever interlock I didn't realize existed caused it to shut down the ventilation system and close all the dampers. This resulted in the transmitter detecting an airflow fault and scaling back power.
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Old 09-02-2015, 09:12 AM   #23195
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Cows on a typical dairy ration can produce 80 to 100 litres of saliva per day.
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Old 09-02-2015, 11:33 AM   #23196
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I find it difficult to believe that a calf can produce 20-25 gallons of saliva per day. I'm not saying you're wrong - just saying it's a stretch for me to believe it.
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Old 09-02-2015, 11:56 AM   #23197
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I saw a fox kit walking down the sidewalk today after I left for work:



hard to see but it's just right of the small white sign on the curb.
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Old 09-02-2015, 12:06 PM   #23198
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I find it difficult to believe that a calf can produce 20-25 gallons of saliva per day. I'm not saying you're wrong - just saying it's a stretch for me to believe it.
Partial excerpt from the paper Applied Ruminant Nutrition for Dairy Cows by T. J. Dugmore of the Cedara Agricultural Development Institute:

THE RUMINANT DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Cattle and sheep have a compound stomach divided into four compartments, which are closely linked together and function as a single unit. The entire stomach system in adult cattle has a capacity of 150 to 200 litres. The stomach system consists of the rumen, making up 80 % of the total volume, the reticulum (5 %), the omasum (6 to 8 %) and the abomasum (7 to 8 %). Cattle can be likened to a walking fermentation vat containing 20 to 40 billion bacteria and up to a million protozoa per millilitre of ruminal fluid.

The bacteria in the rumen break down the organic matter in the feed, through fermentation, into ammonia or relatively simple compounds called volatile fatty acids, in this way supplying both their own nutrient requirements and those of the host. Some of these simple compounds are absorbed through the reticulo-rumen wall into the blood stream, while others are incorporated into the bodies of the micro-organisms. The micro-organisms are digested by the animal in the abomasum as they are swept along with the feed moving through the digestive tract. About 70 % of the digestible organic matter entering the rumen is broken down by the micro-organisms before the feed passes to the omasum.

The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced by the bacterial fermentation in the rumen are used by the cow to provide 50 to 70 % of her daily energy requirements and to form nearly 50 % of the butterfat produced by the mammary gland. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids constitute nearly 90 % of the ruminal VFAs and each is produced by a particular strain of bacterium that require a specific acidity (pH) range in the rumen for maximal growth.

The feed must be broken down into small particles before it can progress from the reticulum into the omasum and abomasum where true digestion occurs. Any feed particles which are not small enough (less than 2 mm) to pass through the reticulum are regurgitated for extra chewing (chewing the cud). Chewing the cud (6 to 8 hours daily) not only helps reduce feed particle size, but also incorporates saliva into the feed. This saliva contains salivary salts which act as a natural buffer to maintain the rumen pH at normal levels (pH 6 to 7) and reduce acidosis. Cows on a typical dairy ration can produce 80 to 100 litres of saliva per day.

Cattle on low roughage/high concentrate rations, or finely milled rations, chew less and consequently produce less saliva. This reduced saliva production can result in excessive acidity (acidosis) in the rumen which reduces the rumen pH from a norm of between 6,0 and 7,0 to between 5,2 and 5,5. The reduced pH can:
  • cause reduced feed intake
  • reduce the population of bacteria producing acetic acid, which is used to produce milkfat by the cow, thus reducing the butterfat levels in the milk
  • damage to the rumen wall, a common condition with animals on feedlot rations. The damage to the rumen wall can lead to liver abscesses because bacteria normally limited to the rumen enter the bloodstream and eventually infect the liver.
The problems caused by the reduced buffering which is associated with feeding high levels of concentrate can be alleviated by supplemental buffers such as bicarbonate of soda or magnesium oxide. These commercial products simulate the buffering effect of the saliva. Splitting the daily concentrate portion of the diet into more, but smaller, feeds to reduce the pH drop in the rumen, has been shown to alleviate low butterfat (BF) problems, i.e. less than 3,3% BF for Holstein-Friesland cows. Research has also shown that splitting the concentrates into more than two feeds per day is usually beneficial only when the concentrate proportion of the diet exceeds 60% or an amount equivalent to approximately 2% of body weight.

The feed usually remains in the rumen-reticulum complex for up to 60 hours, in the omasum for 8 hours and in the abomasum, where true digestion occurs, for 3 hours. After leaving the abomasum, the feed enters the 40 metre long small intestine from which the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The last part of the alimentary tract is the large intestine, which is 11 metres long, where the water is removed from the feed immediately prior to excretion from the animal's body. In the case of grazing cattle, the faeces are still very fluid when they are voided, whereas with sheep, the faeces are normally dry due to the efficient manner in which water is removed by the colon.

The reticulo-rumen acts as a fermentation vat which functions on a "continuous production" principle and not a "batch" system. It therefore requires a constant supply of feed material to keep it functioning. This is achieved in the natural state by the long periods spent grazing, both day and night. When cattle are placed on processed feeds, e.g. complete diet or total mixed rations, the time spent eating may be considerably reduced to about 3 to 4 hours, instead of the normal 8 to 9 hours spent grazing. It is considered preferable to split this shorter period of feeding into several feeding periods, so that the reticulo-rumen is frequently replenished with new feed material.


Source: Applied Ruminant Nutrition for Dairy Cows
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Old 09-02-2015, 01:27 PM   #23199
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<p>
Quote:
Originally Posted by Joe Perez View Post
Partial excerpt from the paper <em>Applied Ruminant Nutrition for Dairy Cows</em> by T. J. Dugmore of the Cedara Agricultural Development Institute:</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>
Quote:
</p><p><em>THE RUMINANT DIGESTIVE SYSTEM</em></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Cattle and sheep have a compound stomach divided into four compartments, which are closely linked together and function as a single unit. The entire stomach system in adult cattle has a capacity of 150 to 200 litres. The stomach system consists of the rumen, making up 80 % of the total volume, the reticulum (5 %), the omasum (6 to 8 %) and the abomasum (7 to 8 %). Cattle can be likened to a walking fermentation vat containing 20 to 40 billion bacteria and up to a million protozoa per millilitre of ruminal fluid.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>The bacteria in the rumen break down the organic matter in the feed, through fermentation, into ammonia or relatively simple compounds called volatile fatty acids, in this way supplying both their own nutrient requirements and those of the host. Some of these simple compounds are absorbed through the reticulo-rumen wall into the blood stream, while others are incorporated into the bodies of the micro-organisms. The micro-organisms are digested by the animal in the abomasum as they are swept along with the feed moving through the digestive tract. About 70 % of the digestible organic matter entering the rumen is broken down by the micro-organisms before the feed passes to the omasum.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced by the bacterial fermentation in the rumen are used by the cow to provide 50 to 70 % of her daily energy requirements and to form nearly 50 % of the butterfat produced by the mammary gland. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids constitute nearly 90 % of the ruminal VFAs and each is produced by a particular strain of bacterium that require a specific acidity (pH) range in the rumen for maximal growth.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>The feed must be broken down into small particles before it can progress from the reticulum into the omasum and abomasum where true digestion occurs. Any feed particles which are not small enough (less than 2 mm) to pass through the reticulum are regurgitated for extra chewing (chewing the cud). Chewing the cud (6 to 8 hours daily) not only helps reduce feed particle size, but also incorporates saliva into the feed. This saliva contains salivary salts which act as a natural buffer to maintain the rumen pH at normal levels (pH 6 to 7) and reduce acidosis. <strong>Cows on a typical dairy ration can produce 80 to 100 litres of saliva per day.</strong></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Cattle on low roughage/high concentrate rations, or finely milled rations, chew less and consequently produce less saliva. This reduced saliva production can result in excessive acidity (acidosis) in the rumen which reduces the rumen pH from a norm of between 6,0 and 7,0 to between 5,2 and 5,5. The reduced pH can:</p><p>cause reduced feed intake</p><p>reduce the population of bacteria producing acetic acid, which is used to produce milkfat by the cow, thus reducing the butterfat levels in the milk</p><p>damage to the rumen wall, a common condition with animals on feedlot rations. The damage to the rumen wall can lead to liver abscesses because bacteria normally limited to the rumen enter the bloodstream and eventually infect the liver.</p><p>The problems caused by the reduced buffering which is associated with feeding high levels of concentrate can be alleviated by supplemental buffers such as bicarbonate of soda or magnesium oxide. These commercial products simulate the buffering effect of the saliva. Splitting the daily concentrate portion of the diet into more, but smaller, feeds to reduce the pH drop in the rumen, has been shown to alleviate low butterfat (BF) problems, i.e. less than 3,3% BF for Holstein-Friesland cows. Research has also shown that splitting the concentrates into more than two feeds per day is usually beneficial only when the concentrate proportion of the diet exceeds 60% or an amount equivalent to approximately 2% of body weight.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>The feed usually remains in the rumen-reticulum complex for up to 60 hours, in the omasum for 8 hours and in the abomasum, where true digestion occurs, for 3 hours. After leaving the abomasum, the feed enters the 40 metre long small intestine from which the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The last part of the alimentary tract is the large intestine, which is 11 metres long, where the water is removed from the feed immediately prior to excretion from the animal's body. In the case of grazing cattle, the faeces are still very fluid when they are voided, whereas with sheep, the faeces are normally dry due to the efficient manner in which water is removed by the colon.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>The reticulo-rumen acts as a fermentation vat which functions on a &quot;continuous production&quot; principle and not a &quot;batch&quot; system. It therefore requires a constant supply of feed material to keep it functioning. This is achieved in the natural state by the long periods spent grazing, both day and night. When cattle are placed on processed feeds, e.g. complete diet or total mixed rations, the time spent eating may be considerably reduced to about 3 to 4 hours, instead of the normal 8 to 9 hours spent grazing. It is considered preferable to split this shorter period of feeding into several feeding periods, so that the reticulo-rumen is frequently replenished with new feed material.</p><p>
</p><p>Now I wonder how they did the testing?&nbsp; And was there a statistical correlation from one to the udder?</p><p><img src="http://cimg0.ibsrv.net/gimg/www.miataturbo.net-vbulletin/450x502/80-cow_4b3954f2df22f45a982b09ac7a207ef67482c0a3.jpg" title="" /><br /><br />&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Source: Applied Ruminant Nutrition for Dairy Cows
</p><p>&nbsp;</p>
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Old 09-02-2015, 02:03 PM   #23200
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RE: Red Wing

I went in yesterday as my currents are worn out. Their computer said I purchased them in february 2012, so 3.5 years. The highest wearing parts of the soles had become bald about 3-4 months ago, and stitching on the upper had just started splitting at the same time.

I got these this time around. Its a cross work/hike
83402 5-inch Hiker Boot - Irish Setter Work

Wearing them for the first time today, very comfy, almost no break in required. The wedge type sole makes all the difference for my flat feet on hard floors.

I asked the duder what the difference is between irish and red. Said they are made in the same place with the same materials, Irish Setter is just their "outdoor line", while they keep the "work line" boots under the red wing name.
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